Predefinição:Referência/doc: diferenças entre revisões

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{{For2|the {{Fact}} template|{{Tl|Citation needed}}}}
The '''CitationReferência''' template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.
 
If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{tl|cite book}} and {{tl|cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for [[Harvard reference]]s whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).
==Anchored citations==
 
This template can generate a citation that can be combined with [[WP:CITESHORT|shortened footnotes]] or [[Wikipedia:Parenthetical referencing|parenthetical referencing]]. It does this by creating an [[HTML element#Anchor|HTML anchor]] containing an ID. The special parameter {{para|ref|harv}} generates an ID suitable for [[Harvard referencing]] templates such as {{tl|harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{tl|citationreferência}} template. If an empty {{para|ref}} is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{tl|cite book}} and {{tl|cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the {{para|ref|<var>ID</var>}} parameter. For example, suppose an article's ''References'' section contains the markup:
* <code><nowiki>{{CitationReferência |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}</nowiki></code>
which generates the citation:
* {{CitationReferência |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}
Then, the markup "<code><nowiki>([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])</nowiki></code>" generates a parenthetical reference "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).
 
 
IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{tl|harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "<code><nowiki>{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</nowiki></code>" generates the Harvard reference "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:
* <code><nowiki>{{CitationReferência |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R.H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372 }}</nowiki></code>
* {{CitationReferência |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R.H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372 }}
In this example the {{tl|citationreferência}} template defines, and the {{tl|harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "<code>CITEREFWrightEvans1851</code>", composed by concatenating the string "<code>CITEREF</code>" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{tl|harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, <code><nowiki>{{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}}</nowiki></code> generates "<code>{{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}}</code>".
 
The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For [[#Citing patents|patents]], inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.
 
Last names are used, as specified by the parameters {{para|last1}} (or {{para|last}}), {{para|last2}}, {{para|last3}}, and {{para|last4}}, and similarly for {{para|editor1-last}} etc. and for {{para|inventor1-last}} etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "<code><nowiki>{{CitationReferência |author=Sigmund Freud |title=The Ego and the Id |year=1923}}</nowiki></code>" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "<code><nowiki>{{harv|Freud|1923}}</nowiki></code>". To make these {{tl|citationreferência}} and {{tl|harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "{{para|author|Sigmund Freud}}" with "{{para|first|Sigmund}} {{para|last|Freud}}", or add "{{para|ref|<nowiki>{{harvid|Freud|1923}}</nowiki>}}" to the {{tl|citationreferência}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "{{para|ref|EgoId}}") to both the {{tl|citationreferência}} and the {{tl|harv}} invocations.
 
Similarly, the year is used, as specified by {{para|year}}. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from {{para|date}} (or, if no date is given, from {{para|publication-date}}) by applying the [[m:Help:Extension:ParserFunctions#.23time:|MediaWiki #time function]]. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and YYYY-MM-DD as listed in [[WP:MOS]]) but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use {{para|year}}. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use {{para|year|2005}} rather than {{para|date|2005}}.
Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{tl|harv}}-compatible IDs:
 
* {{CitationReferência |last1=Montes |first1=G |last2=Halterman |first2=JS |year=2008a |journal=Pediatrics |volume=121 |issue=4 |pages=e821–6 |title=Association of childhood autism spectrum disorders and loss of family income |doi=10.1542/peds.2007-1594 |pmid=18381511 |url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/121/4/e821 }}
* {{CitationReferência |last1=Montes |first1=G |last2=Halterman |first2=JS |year=2008b |journal=Pediatrics |volume=122 |issue=1 |pages=e202–8 |title=Child care problems and employment among families with preschool-aged children with autism in the United States |doi=10.1542/peds.2007-3037 |pmid=18595965 |url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/1/e202 }}
 
If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "<code>CITEREFMontesHalterman2008</code>". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, ''e.g.'', "{{para|year|2008a}}" and "{{para|year|2008b}}", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.
{| class="wikitable"
|-
|<pre>{{CitationReferência
|last=
|first=
|One author
|<pre>
{{ CitationReferência
| last=Turner
| first=O.
}}
</pre>
|{{ CitationReferência
| last=Turner
| first=O.
|Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&amp;) forced before final author's name.
|<pre>
{{ CitationReferência
| last1=Lincoln
| first1=A.
}}
</pre>
|{{ CitationReferência
| last1=Lincoln
| first1=A.
|-
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last =
| first =
|Journal article
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last=Hill
| first=Marvin S.
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last=Hill
| first=Marvin S.
|Newspaper article
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last=Smith
| first=Joseph III
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last=Smith
| first=Joseph III
|-
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last =
| first =
|Manuscript published in an edited compilation
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last=Bidamon
| first=Emma Smith
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last=Bidamon
| first=Emma Smith
|Work with an editor but no author
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| editor-last=Vogel
| editor-first=Dan
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| editor-last=Vogel
| editor-first=Dan
|Encyclopedia article by a named author
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last = Kramer
| first = Martin
|Encyclopedia article with no named author
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
|-
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last =
| first =
|Manuscript edited and published in a journal
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last=Knight
| first=Joseph, Sr.
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last=Knight
| first=Joseph, Sr.
|Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| last=Klingensmith
| first=Philip
}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| last=Klingensmith
| first=Philip
{| class="wikitable"
|-
|<pre>{{CitationReferência
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
|United States patent with multiple inventors
|<pre>
{{Referência
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| country-code = US}}
</pre>
|{{CitationReferência
| inventor1-first = Mikael | inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor2-first = Andrej | inventor2-last = Brodnik
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