m (texto e referências)
TEXTO EM PROCESSO DE TRADUÇÃO
Bottles, jars, and jugs and ampoules made of glass are used in the industry for food and pharmaceutical packaging. Glass packaging is usually formed directly from the molten raw materials into the package. This means that material testing generally must be conducted on the package itself rather than on a sheet or resin pellet as is an option in papers, metals, and plastics. Most standards have to do with maintaining production quality and dimensional consistency (TABELA DADA; COPIEI PARA AQUI). Glass properties are dependent on the composition. Appropriately equipped analytical laboratories can determine this, but in glass manufacturing plants, density and softening point can be substituted for a full analysis. Strength in glass is not typically measured using a tensile strength as in most other materials, because it is extremely strong but extremely brittle. Compressive strength measurements of glass result in much higherstrength values than tensile strength measurements. Glass packages generally break at lower values than the theoretical expectations because of small cracks on the surface that serve as stress concentration points. Online application of pressure, at squeezing stations on glass package-making lines, is used to prevent cracked, broken, or weak packages from advancing into the process. Internal pressure resistance is an important property
== tabela das propriedades ==
In the United Kingdom,
paper and board account for 43% by weight of all packaging
the weight of all packaging and 10% of all goods are
packaged in glass.